It is necessary to consider sport in general before we come specifically to archery. The structure of any sporting contest is triangular. At each apex in turn we have:
• The competitors - without whom there would be no competition.
• The organisers - to make the contest available to the competitors.
• The judges/umpires/referees - whose task it is to ensure that the event runs smoothly, giving pleasure to all concerned, according to the rules of the game. These three are interdependent - take one away and there is little or nothing left. Around the perimeter of this triangle we may have the spectators, the media and representatives of the governing body observing how its members and it is appointed officials conduct themselves.
The Purpose of Rules
All rules are there for a purpose. In many games and sports there is some element of danger, in which case the primary objective must be to ensure safe practices and to eliminate as far as possible any risk to person or property.
Sports and games have world-wide participation. With so many differing nations enjoying the sports and speaking so many different languages it is important that appropriate international governing bodies established rules which can apply anywhere in the world. The next consideration must therefore be uniformity throughout the sport, irrespective of where it is played or who takes part in it, so that it is universally understood and enjoyed by all. Thus the FITA Rules apply Worldwide. Similarly, the GNAS Rules of Shooting apply throughout the orbit of GNAS.
Sports are challenges to the competitors' skills and abilities, be they team games or individual pursuits. In this context the rules of the game must also ensure that no competitor may have advantage over another save 6y his own skill and ability.
All these controls are of no avail if it is possible for competitors to indulge in foul play, to falsify scores or sabotage equipment. So, in parallel with all other regulations, there must be those which ensure that no ill-disposed person will find it possible to cheat without incurring an appropriate penalty.
If every participant knows and observes the rules of the game then there should be few problems, though it is the unexpected which catches us out. Problems arise from causes such as
• Imperfect knowledge of the rules.
• Differing interpretation of the rules.
• Rules introduced to control specific circumstances that create difficulties on account of their limited or restrictive application.
• Deliberate failure to observe rules.
• Malfunction of equipment, not fully anticipated by organisers, competitors or officials
• Unpredictable weather affecting the competition so that it cannot continue.
• Human failure on the part of organisers, competitors and/or officials.
It should be appreciated that no set of rules governing a game has yet achieved such perfection as to cope with every situation. The rules of archery are no exception. Unusual incidents not definitively provided for in the rules frequently occur. It is well therefore to remember that the rules have been framed in the belief that true sportsmanship will prevail and that in the absence of any express rule, common-sense will find away to complete a happy solution to a knotty problem.
The Role of the Officials
The role of the official can be briefly summarised as follows • Liaison with the organisers before the event. • Controlling the event in co-operation with the organisers.
• Dealing on the spot with any problems, in consultation with organisers and competitors as required.
• After the event, reporting to the organisers, governing bodies and sponsors as necessary. Supplying any statistics which might be helpful for like events in the future and highlighting any occurrences which might have affected the outcome of the contest, beneficially or adversely, again with an eye to the future.
Archery and its Judges
The National Panel of judges contains all levels of experience and ability, from those just entering the world of judging, to those of wide experience who have been accepted by FITA as international judges. The National Panel therefore not only provides the officials for its domestic events from local to national level, but is also a source from which FITA recruits its candidates for international judge appointment.
Appointments to National Tournaments
In the case of National Events, the National Judge Committee will circulate all National and Regional judges inviting them to indicate which events they would be prepared to attend. The Judges for the events will then be appointed from those accepting the invitations These appointments are rotated from year to year to spread the opportunities for experience as widely as possible. Also included are reserves who do not have to attend unless called upon but who must keep the dates free in case they are required at short notice. Other factors considered include the distances to be travelled. The Tournament Organiser is supplied with a list of the names of judges appointed so that they may be printed in programmes, target lists, etc.
It is the responsibility of the Tournament Organiser to ensure that the appointed judges receive all the essential literature for the event, and to reserve accommodation for those judges needing it.
It is the responsibility of the judge to advise immediately both the tournament organiser and the Chairman of the GNAS Judges Committee of any changes in the agreed arrangements. Those Judges who have to travel to events will be paid reasonable travel and accommodation expenses, to ensure that those who need experience will not be unduly penalised.
These expenses are paid according to the GNAS rates applicable at the time, anything above these rates are the responsibility of each judge.
In order to gain extra experience, any judge in training is entitled to approach the Judge in charge and/or Tournament Organiser at an event so that they can attend for experience, even though they have not been officially appointed.
Appointments to Regional, County and Club Tourna
in the best run circles the way judges are appointed to events is as follows: • The event organiser will apply to the JLO for judges for his event. • The JLO will then allocate judges (with their agreement) to the event. There is nothing stopping the organiser asking for a particular judge.
• The event organiser will then send Entry Forms to each judge as confirmation of the appointment.
This sequence is used in some Regions while in other Regions the Tournament Organiser appoint the Judges. in the event of an organiser approaching a judge direct, the judge should then inform the JLO of this approach and whether they are accepting the appointment, so that the J LO knows what is going on.
After the appointment of the judges the Tournament Organisers responsibilities are as for the national events, and the judges responsibility is to advise the Tournament Organiser of any change in the agreed arrangements.
The question of out of pocket expenses at these events is at the discretion of the Tournament Organisers.
GNAS judges operate under two very differing sets of rules, the GNAS Rules of Shooting and the FITA Constitution and Rules. It is important that when officiating at an event, that you know which set of rules apply. This is not always as simple as it seems, as there may be events which adopt a mixture of both.
Both GNAS and FITA rule books are live documents and reflect current requirements. Consequently, the rules are subject to change, but the rule book is only printed every 2 years. Any changes in the rules should be issued direct to all judges, will be notified in the Archery UK magazine and on the GNAS web site. It is the duty of all Judges to keep abreast of any changes and to maintain their rule book up-to-date. An out of date rule book is probably worse than no rulebook.
From time to time the National Judge Committee issue directives to the judges on special topics which need to be observed. These directives should also be maintained in a file to be included with the current rulebooks.
It is also important that all judges, regardless of status, keep up-to-date with all the latest changes in interpretation of the rules. The interpretation of rules do change from time to time and the best way to keep ahead of these changes is to attend any Judge Conferences or seminars that are held throughout the year. It is also important that everyone takes part in the "What If queries that are issued occasionally.
A Code of Ethics for Judges
• Judges should consider it to privilege to serve the sport of archery. Success is dependent on the character of the judges, their integrity, knowledge, thoughtfulness and consideration.
• Resolve to keep an open mind at all times and strive to maintain a broad and balanced outlook.
• Set an example. Never allow yourself to lose control of your emotions or common sense.
• Know the rules and how to apply them fairly, as well as courteously.
• Give the competitor the benefit of any doubt. Assume a protective rather than punitive attitude towards the rules and enforcement.
The common aim and mutual concern is THE COMPETITOR.
The Judge's Uniform
At all GNAS Record Status events in Target and Clout Archery, judges must conform to GNAS dress regulations. At other events, the dress regulations are optional. Footwear to be worn at all times, suitable for the terrain and climate.
• Headgear at the individuals discretion but that all times to complement the basic uniform.
• It is expected that the judges would carry with them adequate protective clothing for inclement weather.
At all GNAS events in Field and Flight Archery, judges must wear clothing that will enable them to be easily seen during the event. This means wearing high reflective jackets or waistcoats, and trousers and footwear to suit the terrain. However, judges are encouraged to revert to the more formal dress (as given above for target and clout) at tournament opening and closing ceremonies.
Whatever dress is worn, it should be neat and appropriate to the occasion at all times. References: GNAS Rules of Shooting 308, 504(n), 608
GNAS judges should be recognised for their preparedness and efficiency. A good judge is always prepared and equipped to measure, gauge, view, correct or check. Be sure always to carry the appropriate items.
Items like entry form and amended target list will be made available by the organiser before the tournament begins.
Do's and Don'ts for Judges
An exhaustive list of do's and don'ts is not possible. The guiding philosophy is that your behaviour should be a credit to archery, to yourself, and to your fellow judges.
• Wear the uniform with pride in your right to wear it, and with the purpose of making a positive contribution to the tournament.
• Think of yourself as a host welcoming guests.
• Be enthusiastic, courteous, and friendly.
• Apply the rules fairly, consistently and firmly.
• Offer polite assistance to all; archers, guests, spectators, media personnel,
and fellow officials. '
• Wait until an archer has come off the line before passing a message to them.
• Allow your attention to wander from your primary duty which is the competition. • Imply disrespect for competitors by smoking, drinking, or eating white engaged in official duties like arrow calling or equipment inspection.
• Chat at length other officials while on duty, an act that may lead others involved to believe that you're not paying proper attention to your assigned duties.
• Fraternise too much with the competitors, it may be difficult to penalise someone you are too friendly with.
• Speak to an archer on the shooting line until he has finished shooting, unless it is for a safety problem.
• Drink any alcoholic beverage on or near the tournament field before or during the competition.
• Carry a camera, or 'Walkman" while on duty.
• Use a mobile telephone on the tournament field. If you must carry one, ensure that it is in silent mode.
• Spend periods of time among the competitors. Everyone must be able to find .
Keep in mind the image you portray to competitors, spectators, officials and media, and act accordingly. Common sense must always be your guide.
The Organiser and the Judge
It is the responsibility of the judges to help the organisers In any way possible (and vice versa) within the limitations of the rules and regulations governing the competition. The work done by the judges prior to the actual start of the tournament is one of the major factors for success. Naturally this always has to be in close cooperation with the organisers. Your teamwork is essential. Remember that some organisers may be very new to the job, and therefore very sensitive to criticisms, real or by implication.
If you find that there have been serious errors in the setting up of the field, through oversight or genuine mistake, consider first how such errors are going to affect the tournament. Are they fundamental? Can they be overcome or bypassed?
Whatever the error there should be no carping or gratuitous criticism of the organisers and with limited time before the scheduled start of the event, the judges must do all they can to assist the organiser and his team in correcting the error, or in devising procedures to over- come the source of trouble.
Drawing the organiser's attention to areas should be done quietly, privately, courteously, and in the spirit of friendly co-operation. It might be your turn to organise the next tournament - you will want all the help you can get.
The Field Party
The field working party will be part of the organiser's team. The number depends in part on the size of the event . Remember that, few or many, they are all giving freely of their time to make the event is a success.
The work party will be responsible for supplying and setting up all necessary equipment for the tournament and for replacing damaged equipment (eg target faces, leaky bosses) as required.
The judges are always more than pleased to assist with these tasks, but it is not their special responsibility and they may well be otherwise occupied.
Take care not to become irritated with the public. The support we receive from the public, the media and the Sports Councils depends upon the enjoyment and perception of our sport. Always be prepared to offer information regarding the rules, procedures, customs and any other items that could make the presentation through the media more appreciated and understood by the public.
If it is necessary to restrict the movements of photographers or reporters, do it very graciously and explain to them why such action is necessary. Remember that they are your links with the unknown public.
Correspondents and journalists should have all possible information. If there is no press pack or other documentation available from the organisers and provided that it does not interfere with your duties as a judge, try and supply as much information and you can. It is important to remember that by helping them you are promoting archery. Co-operate with the organisers so that representatives of the media can readily be introduced to all judges and thereafter easily identified on the field.
It may be that a candidate or more junior judge is present at a tournament acquiring further experience prior to our assessment. Such candidates are to be given every opportunity to undertake all possible tasks in judging and given all possible assistance. Judging is easy when a tournament flows smoothly: the real test of the judge is in how he deals with a situation when the unexpected happens. Let the candidate deal with such occurrences but be on hand to guide and support him.
It helps if you can draw on your memories of past situations describing what happened and how the problems were resolved_
The Judge in charge will collect the J5 forms from those members of the judging team who are working towards seeking appointment at the next higher level or from the candidates about to enter the world of judging. He will complete these forms carefully and honestly and returned into the appropriate judge and discuss his findings if required.
Judges and Juniors
The greatest problems with junior archers at tournaments are usually those created by the parents. Any attempt at advising or cautioning can be read by some parents as 'harassment" and therefore it is always necessary for judges to tread warily in this area. Think in advance of what they wish to say and of how they will present this information, before approaching the competitor. Strictly speaking the approach should be to the competitor only, but where, as in many cases the parents are not archers, it is sensible to give them as much advice and information as circumstances permit.
Areas in which juniors are most likely to transgress are
• Dress Regulations, if there has been little advice from the archer's club to parents.
• Receiving illegal advice from parents during shooting.
• Imaginative when calling values of arrows.
If the young archers of today are to be the adult archers of tomorrow then it is up to all judges to be welcoming, helpful, sympathetic and sensitive in the dealings with them so that they will have happy memories of the early days in the sport.
The judge must know the rules thoroughly; equally important, the judge must know how to apply them with dignity and with authority. This will allow the tournament to proceed smoothly and give each competitor the opportunity to achieve their best performance. Be familiar with the Etiquette of Archery as laid down in GNAS Rules Page vii. I Be prepared to adopt the role of teacher where required to educate competitors in good conduct in all aspects of archery activity.
The judge must have a plain understanding of his position as a director of the competition, knowing without question that the judge is responsible for ensuring that the competition is conducted with fairness within the rules. Today's sports competitions are inconsiderate and hard, the competitors may 'Lake every possible advantage profitable to themselves including the weakness of a judge, if it will assist them in producing better results. You may disapprove of this but it is unwise to ignore ft. Unfortunately, the place of the official must, in some circumstances, be that of a policeman in order to guarantee the efforts of all are based on a fair and honest application of the rules.
You must act as a servant and not as a master. Leave the central place in the picture to the competitor. Do not get lost in detail, it is the fundamental line that demands attention, never lose sight of them. Never forget, the work of a judge is in very many cases a question of Applied Psychology.
Many competitors have many years of international experience and quite often they are firmly convinced that they have considerable more knowledge of the rule interpretations and applications than you do. Unfortunately, initially that may be correct. It is therefore vitally important that you NEVER EVER make snap decision based on a calculated guess.
Credibility as a judge is difficult to win from competitors but so very easily lost. Know the rules thoroughly and know what the latest interpretations are. If you are in doubt over a decision, don't be afraid of consulting with other judges before making it. This would not indicate weakness-but a desire to make an absolutely correct decision.
If you have any questions in your own mind about the actual applications or interpretation of a specific rule it is most important that you
a. Refer immediately to your appropriate rule book
b. Consult: with other judges in your immediate vicinity
If the question still cannot be resolved, a final decision would have to be held over until the entire team of judges can be called together and positive statement made.
The real message of the above is that the judge must be well informed, willing to discuss, to educate if necessary and be polite and firm about decisions.
THE JUDGE WILL BE PROTECTIVE RATHER THAN PUNITIVE THE JUDGE WILL GIVE THE BENEFIT OF THE DOUBT THE JUDGE WILL BE FAIR TO ALL
The National Judging Scheme
Outline details of the National Judging Scheme are in Leaflet J10. Additional information is contained in these paragraphs.
Assessments at Tournaments - J5
All judges below National grade are assessed on their performance at each of the tournament at which they officiate. The assessments are recorded on Form J5, which comes in pads with numbered pages; they can be obtained from the GNAS office or via the Judge Liaison Officer (JLO). The pad of forms is retained by the individual and presented to the assessment panel when the judge is being assessed as to their competence to be appointed to a higher grade.
If appropriate, it would be good practice to have separate pads: a. One pad for Target, Flight and Clout events
b. One pad for Field events.
The individual should fill in the parts of the form that are appropriate and present the book to the Judge in charge of the day. Do this in plenty of time during the day - do not leave it to the last minute. The Judge in charge will complete the appropriate elements of the form and return the pad to the individual who will be responsible to take good care of it. If there is no more senior judge, the tournament organiser should complete the J5. The forms are not to be removed from the pad. If a mistake is made filling one in, it must be marked as void and another completed, keeping the numbered sequences intact Additionally, it is good practice for judges to keep their own personal log of the events that they have officiated at, the duties they performed and who were the other judges. This information will be of use when applying for appointment to a higher grade.
Applying for Appointment to a Higher Grade
Each Region is responsible for administering its own Judging Panel up to and including County level, within the framework of the National Judging Scheme. National Judge and Regional Judge levels are administered directly by the National Judge Committee: When the Judge has attained the required time and tournament experience and thinks that they are ready to progress, they can make an application for appointment to a higher grade. The status of Candidate Judge and County Judge can be conferred by Regional Societies in the manner outlined in leaflet J10.
For those advancing to Regional or National level, the application form must be
submitted to the National Judge Committee by October 1 st. The assessment will then be conducted during the following year, if successful the candidate will be notified by the National Judge Committee and the appointment will normally be from the following January.
Regional Judge Assessment (Target/Field)
The recommended procedure for advancement to Regional Judge will be as follows a. The applications must be received by 1 st October in the year preceding the .assessment year" as set out in the National Judging Scheme leaflet.
b. The application to include a record of duties for the past 2 years.
3. The acceptance of the application will be notified to the person applying. They will be advised of the dates when the assessments will be conducted. c. Arrangements will be made for the applicant to attend one of the Regional Championships or World Record Status/FITA Award events where they will be assessed in a working capacity.
d. A report of the applicants attitude and approach and suitability at events of the highest standard will be submitted to the National Judge Committee by the Chairman of the Judge Commission for that event.
e. If satisfactory, the applicant will be invited to attend an Assessment Panel
consisting of the National Judge Committee members and/or its representatives, which will be held at a suitable time and venue. The applicant should bring their booklet of completed JS forms to this Panel.
f. The applicant will be expected to sit a written Question Paper, to test their knowledge of the rules, both GNAS and FITA. (A pass mark in excess of 75% is required.) This will be followed by an interview, to test the attitude and approach of the applicant towards judging.
g. The applicant will be informed of the decision of the panel before they leave, with a written confirmation within 2 weeks.
h. A file will be kept by the Chairman of National Judge Committee in respect of each applicant, containing
(i) The original application form
(ii) A pro-forma with space to indicate completion of each stage of the process
(iii) Copies of other papers relevant to the appointment and progress of the candidate, including reassessment forms.
j. Re-evaluation forms will be sent to all Regional Judges to apply for reinstatement every 3 years.
National Judge Assessment (Target/Field)
The recommended procedure for advancement to National Judge will be as follows a. The applications must be received by ,st October in the year preceding the .assessment year", as set out in the National Judging Scheme leaflet J10. b. The application to include a record of duties for the past 3 years.
c. The acceptance of the application will be notified to the person applying. They will be advised of the dates when the assessments will be conducted.
d. The applicant will be appointed to one of the National Championships or major World Record Status/FITA Award events, where they will be assessed in a working capacity. They will be expected to take charge of running the tournament for at least one of the days.
e. A report of the applicants attitude and approach and suitability to control events of the highest standard will be submitted to the National Judge Committee by the Chairman of the Judge Commission for that event.
f. If satisfactory, the applicant will be invited to attend an Assessment Panel consisting of the National Judge Committee. This will normally be held at GNAS Office near the end of the year. The applicant should bring their booklet of completed JS forms to this Panel.
g. The applicant will be expected to sit a written Question Paper, to test their knowledge of the rules, both GNAS and FITA. (As this is the highest position in GNAS Judging a pass mark in excess of 85% is required.) This will be followed by an interview, to test the attitude and approach of the applicant towards judging.
h. The applicant will be informed of the decision of the panel before they leave, with a written confirmation within 2 weeks.
j. If successful, the applicant will appointed as a National Judge but will serve a probationary period of one year, at the end of which, they will be required to fill out a "Report of Probationary Period" form. This form is to be submitted to the National Judge Committee for appraisal.
k. If satisfactory, they will be appointed to full National Judge status and informed of such in writing.
!. A file will be kept by the Chairman of National Judge Committee in respect of each applicant, containing
(i) The original application form
(ii) A pro-forma with space to indicate completion of each stage of the process
(iii) Copies of other papers relevant to the appointment and progress of the
candidate, including reassessment forms
m. Re-evaluation forms will be sent to all National Judges to apply for reinstatement every 3 years.
During your duties as a Judge, at some time or other, you will be required to fill out some forms, of which there are numerous examples. Be familiar with the regulations with reference to making claims and filling in the forms; as a judge, you will have to answer queries on these subjects. Copies of local forms could be obtained from the J.L.O.; National forms could be obtained from the GNAS office.
ft is recommended that a Judge has the following forms available:
(a) National Forms 6 Gold End Claim Expense Claim
(b) Regional Forms Expense Claim Regional Record Claim JS Forms
Application for Assessment Timing Chart (various styles) County Record Claim
Note. For Target Archery, Many National forms are incorporated in the Record Status Tournament Documentation booklet issued to appropriate tournament organisers. This incorporates forms for:
6 Gold End Claim Rose Award Claims Claims for the various FITA awards
Judges Tournament Report and signature shee.t